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2 Clinical Trials

fluorescent light (pulsating 100 times per second), fluorescent light (relatively steady), incandescent light, p\ox gall soap, copper piping, refrigeration unit, thread, silk screen print on aluminum panels
Ngorongoro, Berlin 2015

2 Clinical Trials:
1.) (A contribution of fluorescent lighting to agoraphobia)
2.) (An admixture analysis of age of onset in agoraphobia)

A contribution of fluorescent lighting to agoraphobia

Psychol Med. 1990 Aug;20(3):591-6.
Hazell J1, Wilkins AJ.
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Under three types of artificial lighting 24 women with chronic agoraphobia and 24 female control subjects assessed their mood and bodily symptoms, and their heart rate was measured. One of the three types of lighting was incandescent. The other two were fluorescent, one pulsating in the conventional manner 100 times per second and the other relatively steady. Both were provided by a single fluorescent lamp controlled from one of two circuits. When exposed to the conventional pulsating fluorescent light under double-blind conditions the agoraphobic group showed a higher heart rate and reported more anomalous visual effects in response to an epileptogenic pattern. Control subjects reported more bodily symptoms under the conventional fluorescent light than under the two other lighting conditions.

PMID: 2236367
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


An admixture analysis of age of onset in agoraphobia.
Tibi L1, van Oppen P2, Aderka IM3, van Balkom AJ2, Batelaan NM2, Spinhoven P4, Penninx BW2, Anholt GE5.
J Affect Disord. 2015 Jul 15;180:112-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.064. Epub 2015 Apr 8.
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Age of onset is an important epidemiological indicator in characterizing disorders׳ subtypes according to demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants. While investigated in various psychiatric conditions, age of onset and related characteristics in agoraphobia have yet to be examined. In light of the new diagnostic status in the DSM-5 edition of agoraphobia as independent from panic disorder, research on agoraphobia as a stand-alone disorder is needed.

Admixture analysis was used to determine the best-fitting model for the observed ages at onset of 507 agoraphobia patients participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (age range 18-65). Associations between agoraphobia age of onset and different demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Admixture analyses identified two distributions of age of onset, with 27 as the cutoff age (≤27; early onset, >27; late onset). Early onset agoraphobia was only independently associated with family history of anxiety disorders (p<0.01)

Age of onset was assessed retrospectively, and analyses were based on cross-sectional data.

The best distinguishing age of onset cutoff of agoraphobia was found to be 27. Early onset agoraphobia might constitute of a familial subtype. As opposed to other psychiatric disorders, early onset in agoraphobia does not indicate for increased clinical severity and/or disability.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Age of onset; Agoraphobia; Risk factor

[PubMed - in process]